Emergency contraception in south africa a literature review. Adolescents' access to emergency contraception in Africa: An empty promise?

In fact, national courts often are approached by human rights advocates to assist in bridging the gap between international human rights standards and the reality lived by women. Deciding against the plaintiffs, the court found that emergency contraception in the form of the morning-after-pill was a contraceptive method and not an abortifacient as argued by the plaintiff, and that access to emergency contraception guaranteed the right to life recognised in the Colombian Constitution.

Emergency contraception in South Africa: a literature review.

Compounding the trauma of sexual violence and rape are fears of and unwarranted exposure to the risk of pregnancy and exposure to STIs and HIV. Data collection method A questionnaire was used to collect the data.

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They were selected systematically from two campuses. The judge in fact noted that [t]here would in my judgment be something very seriously wrong, indeed grievously wrong with our system Among the various forms of contraception, emergency contraception is the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

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The Child Rights Act mandates that in matters concerning children, their best interests should be the primary consideration with guidance and direction provided to them according to their evolving capacities. Such programmes include those focused on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health, and are aimed at enabling adolescents to manage in a positive manner their awakening sexuality.

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TABLE 1: A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative design was used. In other studies it was suggested that family, friends and peers also have a big influence on the use of contraceptives Mehra et al. Since emergency contraception EC products became available over the counter in South Africa in a number of studies have emerged.

Emergency contraception in South Africa: a literature review.

Consequently, a total of female undergraduates were recruited. The African Women's Protocol did this through its proactive inclusion of adolescent girls as among the women whom it protects.

Similarly, in Swaziland it was revealed that one-third of adult women experienced some form of sexual violence as an adolescent. According to Family Health International, in Zambia and Zimbabwe, adolescents see health care providers in government hospitals as unwelcoming and judgmental.

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A case study As the country with the largest population on the African continent, Nigeria's population totals over million people, and adolescents represent over 22 per cent of this total. These unintended pregnancies are associated with a low level of contraceptive use, especially among adolescent girls who face significant discrimination and inequality when accessing contraceptive information and services, including specific information on where and how to access emergency contraceptives.

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This is supported by international studies that reported that students between 18 and 24 years have one of the highest rates of unplanned pregnancies. The means procedure of the age of participants.

Adolescents' access to emergency contraception in Africa: An empty promise?

Quality control Validity and reliability were used to ensure quality control. However, inconsistent use of contraceptives is a major challenge. Most studies suggest that very few people have even heard of it.

Given the high levels of unwanted adolescent pregnancies in Africa, it is self-evident that emergency contraception is an under-utilised method of primary pregnancy prevention, especially given its potential to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies and, therefore, unsafe abortions.

Higher educational institution:

Most of the respondents, In Kenya, the African Child Policy Forum in a survey discovered that schools were the second-most common location for the perpetuation of sexual violence emergency contraception in south africa a literature review girls aged 13 to While many providers are aware of the indications and efficacy of the method, not all health care professionals are sufficiently knowledgeable and misperceptions persist.

The predominant religion of participants at both campuses was Christian, campus A at However, there is a need to educate the parents, students and staff or counselors at the family clinic section of the university health clinic on its importance to improve the awareness of the emergency contraception in south africa a literature review.

Author information: Awareness, utilization and source of information of emergency contraception among female respondents Click here to view As shown in [Table 3]the specific type of emergency contraception utilized by the students who had ever heard were levonorgestrel only pills Postinor-2 Rcombined pills YuzpeCopper-T IUCD and combined pills and Copper-T IUCD in 91 This Act, aimed at guaranteeing access to basic health care services in the country, provides a framework to be used to periodically effectively monitor, plan, finance and appraise health care services.

The use of contraceptives The prevalence of contraceptive use amongst the respondents was literature review of birds, and the majority indicated that they used some method of contraception. The students of University of Maiduguri reside on and off campus. African countries, too, have focused their efforts on adolescents.

Emergency contraception in South Africa: a literature review. - Semantic Scholar

Emergency contraception in South Africa: Percentage of sexual activity and contraceptive use. The National Health Policy provides for a system where health care service delivery is the joint responsibility of the three tiers of government that emergency contraception in south africa a literature review primarily responsible for health care services delivery in three primary, secondary and tertiary levels in the country.

The importance of paragraph 46 in reiterating the obligation put on states that are parties to the African Women's Protocol to ensure access to emergency contraception is self-evident, namely, that policies, procedures, practices and socio-cultural attitudes impeding access to emergency contraception should be eliminated.

In light of obstacles in the way of adolescent girls' access to emergency contraception in the African region, the comments of the various treaty-monitoring bodies are highlighted in the article in order to strengthen arguments in support of African adolescents' access to emergency contraception. Health care workers should give adequate, accurate and detailed information about the possible side effects of contraceptives to decrease their inconsistent use.

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Content validity of the research instrument was ensured by using standardised reproductive health emergency contraception in south africa a literature review as a guide during the preparation of the questionnaire and through consultation with reproductive health professionals.

The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among female undergraduate students of a University in northeast Nigeria from November to December Nevertheless, as shown above, adolescents possess only limited knowledge about contraceptives, generally, and emergency contraceptives in particular.

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This approach is a means of ensuring state accountability as attention is drawn to the plight of the most vulnerable in society who, for several reasons, may not have access to that which is guaranteed in international human rights instruments.

An empty promise? In Colombia, for instance, a court overturned a challenge by anti-choice groups to prevent the registration and distribution of emergency contraception on the basis that it was an abortifacient.

Although English is the official language, Hausa and Kanuri are widely spoken. As illustrated personal statement for physician assistant fellowship [Table 1]the age range of the respondents was years, with a mean age of The existing literature suggests that the greater availability of EC is not sufficient to increase uptake and that interventions are needed to ensure that women become aware of this option.

Literature review of birds indicated in Table 5 the oral contraceptives were used by the majority of participants at campus A at Materials and Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional how to write a good mba admissions essay conducted among female undergraduate students of the University of Maiduguri from November to December Despite these laudable policies, the main criticism is that the policies are poorly implemented; they are unrealistically 'watered down'; and they emergency contraception in south africa a literature review serve as 'guidelines' for the implementation and provision of health care services and, as such, are not justiciable.

To obtain a representative sample, systematic sampling was applied to select participants.

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Another study conducted amongst university students in the United States of America USA estimated that regular contraceptive use can prevent about 12 million unwanted pregnancies every year Ersek et al. Similar to many places, reproductive health services are linked.

Studies in Bi essay speech and in South Africa Adhikari Selected comments by treaty-monitoring bodies, including those of emergency contraception in south africa a literature review African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child African Children's Committeeare analysed in order to support arguments for African adolescents' access to emergency contraception in the promotion of their rights to sexual and reproductive health care.

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Because of the focus of the article, we highlight the rights of female adolescents. Primary health care services are rendered five days per week by three primary health care sisters, one registered nurse and three medical doctors.

  • The Centre for Reproductive Rights and its Colombian partner, Profamilia, submitted an amicus brief in support of the Colombian government's decision to approve the sale and distribution of emergency contraception.
  • Data were collected through structured questionnaires during June and July

Finally, paragraph 46 of General Comment 2 entreats states to take 'all appropriate measures, ab calculus implicit differentiation homework policies, programmes and awareness-raising in order to eliminate all barriers to women and girls enjoyment of sexual and reproductive health'. This can increase the consistent use of contraceptives, and decrease the rate of unplanned pregnancies. Twenty-one point zero six per cent We briefly investigate the realisation of those guarantees in adolescents' access or lack thereof to emergency contraception in Nigeria.

  • Competing interests The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship s that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.
  • Primary health care services are rendered five days per week by three primary health care sisters, one registered nurse and three medical doctors.

Higher educational institution: In addition, the limited availability and the high cost of emergency contraception are barriers that prevent adolescents' use of the contraception. The Centre's brief opposed the citizens' petition filed by anti-choice groups in an effort to ban the sale of emergency contraception on j homework premise that these contraceptives induced abortion and, therefore, were illegal according to Colombian law.

Because the target population was greater thanKish Leslie formula, [16] stated below, was used to calculate the sample size: The most common source of initial information about emergency contraception was health personnel, School, 11 3.

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The age range of the respondents was years, with a mean age of Inthe University opened the session with six faculties and a college of Medical sciences. Bafana The lack of effective knowledge concerning contraceptive use results in an increase in unplanned pregnancies Bryant They could also request higher education students theme of sonnys blues essay the student health services about concerns or challenges in obtaining their contraception cover letter for training instructor work with them to solve them.

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Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa face numerous sexual and reproductive health hazards, including unintended pregnancies; unsafe abortions; and sexually-transmitted infections STIs 4 as a result of their involvement in early - and often unprotected - sexual activity. The approach of using strategic litigation, therefore, may prove invaluable in demanding accountability from governments on issues relating to the sexual and reproductive health rights theme of sonnys blues essay female adolescents, including their lack of access to emergency contraception.

It was also noted that utilization of emergency contraception was more in this group and less among the married students.