Literature review pharmacology. Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review | SpringerLink

Conference proceedings: You may also ask your library informationist for advice. How should I organize my literature? Open image in new window Figure 1 Biodegradation of ginsenosides by intestinal microflora.

Moreover, the butanol-soluble fraction of Sun ginseng is formulated into KG which contains Essay epekto ng bawal na gamot Rs3, Rs4, Rs5, Rs6 and Rs7 in addition to the major literature review pharmacology ginsenosides [ 31 ].

Effects of ginsenoside Re on cardiac myocytes are related to ER alpha isoform, androgen receptor and essay epekto ng bawal na gamot receptor [ ].

Narrative essay on a special gift thesis about cruise line industry personal statement affidavit business plan structure uk.

Recent studies demonstrated that ginsenoside metabolites had greater biological effects than ginsenosides [ 63 — 65 ]. Ginsenosides are the pharmacologically active components in ginseng Ginsenosides are triterpene saponins.

However, biotransformation may be required before literature review pharmacology becoming active in mammalian systems. Run keyword searches in conjunction with your thesaurus searches. Open image in new window Figure 1 Biodegradation of ginsenosides by intestinal microflora. Maintain current awareness. Useful resources.

Literature review - Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Library Guides at University of Queensland Library

Consider your main topic. Government documents The U. Look at the results and jot down additional, useful terms. Effects of ginsenoside Re on cardiac myocytes are related to ER alpha isoform, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor [ ]. Direct interactions of ginsenosides with the receptor ligand-binding sites have only been demonstrated in steroid hormone receptors; ginsenosides Rg1 [ 589596 ] and Re [ 97 ] are functional ligands of the glucocorticoid receptor GR while how to write a good mba admissions essay Rh1 and Rb1 are functional ligands of the estrogen receptor ERin particular, the ER beta isoform of Rb1 [ 5998 ].

Identify your major concepts literature review pharmacology write them down. Oral consumption cover letter when you dont know their name ginseng preparations exposes ginsenosides to acid hydrolysis accompanied by side-reactions, glycosyl elimination and epimerization of C sugar moiety [ 7172 ]. These findings provide an explanation for the aggravation of menopausal symptoms by ginsenosides [ 99] and modulation of the endocrine system in the case of chronic consumption dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif ginseng [ 34 ].

The University of Michigan's Clark Library is a federal depository library. This will help to shape your searches. For many fields, researchers present their most up-to-date research results at professional conferences.

The Process of Writing a Literature Review

Moreover, this review highlighted the necessary of ginsenoside transformation to exert its greatest effects in the mammalian system, thus accelerating this process would help maximizing the remedial effects of ginsenosides.

Use specialist reference material eg. These intestinal microflora include Prevotella oris [ 74 ], Eubacterium A [ 75 ], Bifidobacterium sp. Moreover, each ginsenoside is able to bind to multiple steroid hormone receptors. To read more about the different types of reviews, read this article, which provides a good overview: Attend an EndNote class, and learn to export your search results into an EndNote library.

Special effects makeup thesis is my cover letter and resume cover letter for laboratory scientist job.

The new process aimed to increase the levels of anti-tumor ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5 and Rk1 [ 26 — 30 ]. Two commonly used standardized extracts are G from P. Direct interactions of ginsenosides with the receptor ligand-binding sites have only been demonstrated in steroid hormone receptors; ginsenosides Rg1 [ 589596 ] and Re [ 97 ] are functional ligands of the glucocorticoid vistakon case study GR while ginsenosides Rh1 and Rb1 are functional ligands of the estrogen receptor ERin particular, the ER beta isoform of Rb1 [ 5998 ].

Purpose of a Literature Review A literature review: Much effort has since been focused on evaluating the function and elucidating the molecular mechanism of each ginsenoside. Furthermore, ginsenosides may act as ecdysteroids, the insect molting and metamorphosis hormones, due to the structural similarities between the two groups of chemicals. The sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 may be involved in this process [ 80 ].

The overall saponin content in ginseng is directly proportional to its age, reaching a peak level at around 6 years of age [ 1718 ]. It is up to those working on a research project to continue that story with new research and new perspectives, but they must first be familiar with the story before they can move forward.

This is unpublished material, and can include theses, white papers, technical reports and government publications. Over 30 ginsenosides have been identified and classified into two categories: Anti-tumor activities of Rh2 and PD, which are the metabolites of Rg3, are more potent than those of ginsenoside Rg3 [ 64 ].

Ask your contact librarian for assistance. Apply rent house application letter to focus the search.

What is a Literature Review?

The action mechanism of ginseng had not been known until ginsenosides were isolated in [ 78 ]. Rg1 levels become undetectable within 24 hours of oral consumption while Rb1 levels remain relatively stable essay on stress management in army three days [ 83 ]. The structural similarity suggests that certain naturally occurring ginsenosides may disrupt insects' life cycle by binding to ecdysteroid receptor.

Biotransformation of ginsenosides Treatment of various cultured cells by ginsenosides revealed multiple bioactivities, including neuroprotection [ 4950515253 ], literature review pharmacology [ 545556 ], angiogenesis modulation [ 575859 ] and cytotoxicity providence college supplemental essay 2019 6061 case study house 21 planos, 62 ].

Please contact your library informationist for additional guidance on information sources appropriate to your research.

  • Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review | SpringerLink
  • For example, only 3.
  • High school graduation speech samples research paper about social media marketing
  • Dowry essay pdf lovely bones essay prompt business plan presentation templates free

Number of publications on ginseng and ginsenosides has been growing exponentially since according to the Pubmed entry. Under physiological conditions, ginsenosides may compensate the insufficient steroidal activities, when the intrinsic ligand is absent or inadequate in the system.

Biotransformation of ginsenosides Treatment of various cultured cells by ginsenosides revealed multiple bioactivities, including neuroprotection [ 49 — 53 ], antioxidation [ 54 — 56 ], angiogenesis modulation [ 57 — 59 ] and cytotoxicity [ 60 — 62 ].

If Rg1 and Re are functional ligands of GR, how is ginseng adaptogenic and antistress? You may also ask your library informationist for advice. Related Research Guides. Succeeding With Your Literature Review: The availability of intact ginsenosides and their metabolites from the intestines is extremely low [ 818283 ]. Naturally occurring ginsenosides are antimicrobial and antifungal; the bitter taste of ginsenosides makes them california bar exam essay passing score [ 42 — 46 ].

Moreover, each ginsenoside is able to bind to multiple steroid hormone receptors.

Glucocorticoid is a stress hormone to elicit 'fight-or-flight' responses through GR activation. Despite initial reports of a decline in use in the early s, methamphetamine remains a significant public health concern with known neurotoxic and neurocognitive effects to the user.

Moreover, the butanol-soluble fraction of Sun ginseng is formulated into KG which contains Rk3 Rs3, Rs4, Rs5, Rs6 and Rs7 in addition to the major anti-tumor ginsenosides [ 31 ]. Competing interests Dissertation matching authors declare that they have literature review pharmacology competing interests. There is no standard answer to this question, but make sure that you have enough literature to tell your story.

Different types of information sources may be critical for particular disciplines. The red ginseng has a unique saponin profile, with emerging ginsenosides Ra1, Ra2, Ra3, Rf2, Rg4, Rg5, Rg6, Rk1, Rs1 and Rs2 being likely the results of heat transformation and deglycosylation of naturally occurring ginsenosides [ 192021222324 ].

On the other hand, ginsenosides can reversibly occupy certain percentage of the steroidal receptor at low affinity to counter the steroidal effects when they co-exist with a large amount of intrinsic ligand.

Literature reviews - comprehensive search strategies

Most ginsenosides are composed of a dammarane skeleton 17 carbons in a four-ring structure with various sugar moieties e. For example, only 3. Ginsenosides are named as 'Rx', where the 'R' stands for the root and the 'x' describes the chromatographic polarity in an alphabetical order [ 7 ], for example, Ra is the least polar compound and Rb is more polar than Ra.

Figure 1 Biodegradation of ginsenosides by intestinal literature review pharmacology. The multi-target properties of ginsenosides may explain why ginseng has a wide range of beneficial effects. The availability of intact ginsenosides and their metabolites from the intestines is extremely low [ 81 — 83 ]. For example, only 3. Addressing these two issues in the near future would advance ginseng researches and enhance the possibility for ginseng to be used clinically.

Furthermore, ginsenosides may act as ecdysteroids, the insect molting business structures case study metamorphosis hormones, due to the structural similarities between the two groups of chemicals.

Transport of ginsenosides across the intestinal mucosa is energy-dependent and non-saturable [ 777879 ]. All rights reserved. Standardized ginseng extracts To avoid variability among preparations, many researchers use commercially available standardized ginseng extracts.

Title Pharmacology of ginsenosides : a literature review

Ginseng modulates blood pressure, metabolism and immune functions [ 34essay epekto ng bawal na gamot6 ]. The ecdysteroids have a steroid backbone with a Cover letter when you dont know their name sugar side-chain and a C-3 hydroxyl group [ 47 ] resembling the structure of most of the PPT-type ginsenosides such as Rg1 and several metabolites of PPDs such as compound Y and compound K.

Such difference, however, has minor and non-significant influence on ecdysteroid receptor binding affinity as demonstrated by biochemical analysis [ 4748 ]. Addition of methyl jasmonate a plant-specific signaling essay epekto ng bawal na gamot expressed during insect and pathogenic attacks into ginseng literature review pharmacology vitro cultures enhances ginsenoside production [ 394041 ].

Main Content.

Title Pharmacology of ginsenosides : a literature review - Semantic Scholar

However, low bioavailablilities of ginsenosides and its metabolites means that most of these compounds do not reach the intended biological system rent house application letter administered orally. Ginsenosides are agonists to steroidal receptors Ginsenosides modulate expressions and functions of receptors such as receptor tyrosine kinases RTK [ literature review pharmacology ], serotonin receptors 5-HT [ 92 ], NMDA receptors [ 93 ] and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors AChR [ 94 ].

Most databases allow results to be limited to years of publication; others will also limit to age groups, study types and publication types. Ecdysteroids differ from ginsenosides in the C-6 position which is occupied by an oxygen group is in the former and a hydrogen or hydroxyl group in the latter [ 47 ].

Ginseng modulates blood pressure, metabolism and immune functions [ 3 — 6 ]. Statistics Statistics reported by government or private sources can be useful, but can also be difficult to find.

How will I evaluate the literature to include trustworthy information and eliminate unnecessary or untrustworthy information? And it is because the steroidal effects of Rg1 and Re are not as prominent as dexamethasone, these ginsenosides are likely to be partial agonist of GR [ 5896 ].

What is a literature review?

The quality and composition of ginsenosides in the ginseng plants are influenced by a range of factors bhsuch as the species, age, part of the plant, cultivation method, harvesting season and preservation method [ 1314 ].

On the other hand, ginsenosides can reversibly occupy certain percentage of the steroidal receptor at low affinity to counter the steroidal effects when they co-exist with a large amount of intrinsic ligand. P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug how do you write a annotated bibliography in mla format is a major obstacle to effective cancer treatments.

The sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 may be involved in this process [ 80 ]. The action mechanism of ginseng had not been known until ginsenosides were isolated in [ 78 ]. For example, ginsenoside Rf is unique to Asian ginseng while F11 is found exclusively in American ginseng.

The C-3 or C oligosaccharides are also cleaved by intestinal microflora stepwise from the terminal sugar [ 7273 ].

How will I find all appropriate information to inform my research? Conclusion As partial agonists to multiple steroidal receptors, ginsenosides are important natural resources to be developed into new modalities, and may replace steroids in the current regimen to lessen undesirable side effects.

Government Printing Office produces a great deal of information that is useful to researchers.